Classification of fractures:

-Primary open fracture:- soft tissues are damaged by the injuring agent.
-Secondary open fracture :- Soft tissues are damaged by bone fragments.

Gustilo and Anderson classification:
 
Type 1 :- Wound is less than 1cm long
Moderately clean puncture where spike of bone has pierced the skin.
Little soft tissue damage.
No crushing.
Fractures are usually simple,transverse or oblique with little comminution.

Type 2:- Laceration is more than 1 cm
No extensive soft tissue damage,flap or contusion.
Slight to moderate crushing injury.
Moderate comminution.
Moderate contamination.
Type 3:-Extensive damage to soft tissues.
            -High degree of contamination
            -Fracture caused by high velocity trauma.

Causes of fractures:
-Sudden and excessive force(may be direct or indirect).
-With direct force,the bone breaks at the point of the impact,eg:Fracture of the ulna caused by a blow on the arm.
-With indirect force the bone breaks at a distance from where the force is applied.Ex:Spiral fractures of the tibia and the fibula due to torsion of the leg.

Definition of fractures:
-Fractures are damage of the integrity of the bone tissue,
 

by col3neg

published Date 2017-03-21